Helper Class: Fader

Kommen wir zu einer Helper Klasse, die mir schon sehr viel Freude bereitet hat. Sie ist mit Sicherheit noch um einiges Verbesserungswürdig, aber der praktische Nutzen für Spiele ist jetzt schon enorm. Ich habe die Klasse bei der damaligen Entwicklung Fader genannt, und dabei will ich es auch belassen.

Hier erstmal nen kleines Video, was sich für Effekte damit verwirklichen lassen. Ich hab da mal eben schnell so nen Clicky Bunti Szenario zusammen gefrickelt. Damit lassen sich aber alle möglichen Effekte herstellen.

Die Aufgabe der Klasse ist simpel. Sie wird dafür eingesetzt, um Dinge überblenden zu lassen. Man könnte Sie auch Blend oder Transition oder weiß der Teufel wie nennen, aber ich habe mich damals für Fader entschieden. Eigentlich macht die Klasse nichts anderes, als einen Wertebereich in einer bestimmten Zeit abzufahren. Dadurch ist es Hinterher allerdings ganz einfach möglich, richtig schöne Effekte zu erzeugen. Gerade im 2D, UI oder HUD-Bereich lassen sich tolle Effekte erzeugen. Genug geredet! Auf gehts!

SmoothstepDie Klasse muss einmal die lineare Überblendung beherrschen und einmal eine etwas smoothere Version. Mit Smooth meine ich die in XNA integrierte Methode MathHelper.SmoothStep, die einen Wert anhand einer kubischen Gleichung interpoliert. In der Grafik ist das einfach nachzuvollziehen. Ungefähr wie beim beschleunigen.

Ob die Kurve da rechts den gleichen Verlauf hätte wie bei der Funktion von MathHelper.SmoothStep sei mal dahingestellt. Jedenfalls wird sie ziemlich ähnlich aussehen. Also los.

Wir erstellen im Projektmanager die Klasse Fader.cs.  Die Klasse benötigt eigentlich immer einen minimalen und einen maximalen Wert, zwischen denen sie interpolieren kann. Mir fällt gerade auf, während ich dieses Tutorial schreibe, dass die Klasse noch durchaus verbessert werden kann. Wir lassen den minimalen und maximalen Wert weg, und machen es wie bei fast allem in der 3D Welt. 0 ist Minimum, 1 ist Maximum. So haben wir zwei Parameter gespart und ehrlich gesagt, habe ich in all den (unfertigen) XNA Projekten niemals andere Werte als 0 und 1 angegeben. Es wäre allerdings schön, wenn der Effekt am Ende optional in die gegenteilige Richtung weiter laufen könnte. Evtl. noch eine Angabe, wie der Effekt laufen soll und bei welchem Wert er starten soll. Damit sollten die meisten Anwendungsfälle abgedeckt sein.

Also los, ctor <TAB> und schon haben wir einen leeren Konstruktur. Der Konstruktor mit allen Werten sollte als ersten Parameter die Zeit in Millisekunden beinhalten, anschließend ob der Effekt am Ende umgekehrt wird, die Wiederholungen und am Ende der Startwert.

public class Fader {
    public Fader(int time, bool reverseAtEnd, int iterations, float startValue) {

    }
}

Wir könnten jetzt noch ein paar Überladungen der Konstruktoren schreiben, in welchem Beispielsweise nur die Zeit verlangt wird und die restlichen Parameter mit Standardwerten befüllt werden. Aber neuerdings gibt es ja auch optionale Parameter in C#. Wieso also soviel schreiben, wenn es auch einfacher geht! Als Standardwert für die Zeit nehmen wir 1 Sekunde (time1000). Der Effekt soll am Ende immer umgekehrt wiedergegeben (reverseAtEndtrue) und unendlich oft (iterations0) wiederholt werden. Als Standarad-Startwert kommt natürlich erstmal nur der minimale Wert in Frage (startValue0). Also neuer Konstruktur:

public Fader(int time = 1000, bool reverseAtEnd = true, int iterations = 0, float startValue = 0) {

}

Hammer! Weiter! Das ganze sollten wir uns in Member-Variablen merken. Zusätzlich brauchen wir noch einen Merker, ob wie gerade den Wert von 0 nach 1 oder 1 nach 0 interpolieren. Außerdem noch die vergangenen Wiederholungen und ob der Fader überhaupt Aktiv ist.

Wir programmieren ein Spiel. Geschwindigkeit ist also alles. Deswegen merken wir uns noch, wie weit der Fader in einer einzigen Millisekunde interpoliert hätte und außerdem die Ergebniswerte, die später abgefragt werden können. Also einmal den linearen Value und den SmootValue. Zuletzt noch ne Variable für die vergangene Zeit.

Aus den besprochenen Sachen erstellen wir jetzt die passenden Member-Variablen und frisieren den Konstruktor ein wenig.

public class Fader {
        private float _distancePerMS;
        private int _time;
        private int _timeElapsed;
        private float _value;
        private float _valueSmooth;
        private int _iterations;
        private int _iteration;
        private bool _forward;
        private bool _reverseAtEnd;
        private bool _active;

        public Fader(int time = 1000, bool reverseAtEnd = true, int iterations = 0, float startValue = 0) {
            _time = time;
            _reverseAtEnd = reverseAtEnd;
            _iterations = iterations;
            _value = MathHelper.Clamp(startValue, 0, 1);

            _forward = true;
            _iteration = 1;

            _distancePerMS = 1 / (float)_time;
            _timeElapsed = (int)(startValue * (float)_time);

            _active = true;
        }
}

In der finalen Klasse werde ich die ganzen Methoden mit Beschreibungen versehen. Damit man später auch noch weiß, dass die Zeit Beispielsweise in Millisekunden übergeben werden muss.

Die ersten 4 Zeilen des Konstruktors sind relativ einleuchtend. Übergabeparameter lokal merken. Bei dem startvalue sorgen wir noch mit MathHelper.Clamp dafür, dass der Wert nicht unter 0 oder über 1 geht. In der Variable _forward merken wir uns, ob der Wert gerade nach oben oder unten interpoliert wird. Am Anfang also immer von 0 nach 1 (_forwardtrue). Wir sind bei der ersten Iteration, also _iteration1. Anschließend berechnen wir den zu interpolierenden Wert in einer Millisekunde und wie viel Millisekunden theoretisch schon vergangen wären, wenn der Startwert größer als unser minimaler Wert wäre.

Aktiv schalten natürlich nicht vergessen. Perfekt! So, jetzt können wir uns an die gute alte Update-Routine wagen. Wir werden diese Klasse übrigens später nicht als GameComponent einbinden. Das wäre dann doch ein wenig zuviel des Guten und außerdem viel viel zu unübersichtlich. Stattdessen sorgen wird später selber dafür, dass die entsprechende Update-Routine aufgerufen wird. Im Update errechnen wir den bisher interpolierten Wert und merken ihn uns in _value und _valueSmooth. Schon durch das gespaltene Prinzip von Update  und Draw müssen wir uns zwangsweise den errechneten Wert merken und können ihn nicht bei Abruf on the fly errechnen. Naja, eigentlich ist das nur die halbe Wahrheit.  Da sich die vergangenen Millisekunden sich zwischen dem Aufruf von Update nicht verändern, würde auch der, bei Abruf errechnete Wert immer gleich bleiben. Dennoch! Der Wert wird später mit Sicherheit öfter abgerufen, als die Update-Methode aufgerufen wird. Also berechnen wir ihn im voraus. Hier erstmal die Routine. Die Berechnungen erkläre ich anschließend.

public void Update(GameTime gameTime) {
    if (_active) {
        //1. Vergangenen Milliseconds seid dem letzten Aufruf auf die gesamten MS aufrechnen
        _timeElapsed += gameTime.ElapsedGameTime.Milliseconds;

        //2. In welcher Loop befinden wir uns
        _iteration += _timeElapsed / _time;

        //3. Prüfen, ob Fader noch gültig ist
        if (_iterations != 0)
            _active = _iteration <= _iterations;

        //4. Wenn die maximalen Wiederholungen erreicht sind, dann den Wert auf Min bzw. Max setzen!
        if (!_active) {
            if (_reverseAtEnd && _iterations % 2 == 0) {
                _value = 0;
                _valueSmooth = 0;
            } else {
                _value = 1;
                _valueSmooth = 1;
            }
            return;
        }

        //5. Prüfen in welche Richtung der Wert sich verändert
        if (_reverseAtEnd)
            _forward = (_iteration % 2 != 0);

        //6. Runterrechnen der MS auf die normale Zeitspanne
        _ms %= _time;

        //7. Wert errechnen
        if (_forward)
            _value = (float)_ms / (float)_time;
        else
            _value = (float)(_time - _ms) / (float)_time;

        //8. Smoothwert errechnen
        _valueSmooth = MathHelper.SmoothStep(0, 1, _value);
    }
}

Am Anfang erstmal abfragen, ob der Fader  überhaupt aktiv ist. Das hat den Vorteil, dass man ihn evtl. später per Trigger starten, bzw. deaktivieren kann.

1. Im ersten Schritt werden dann die bisher vergangenen Millisekunden auf unsere Member-Variable _timeElapsed drauf rechnen.
2. Errechnen in welchem Iterations-Lauf wir uns befinden (Nicht verwirren lassen durch das +=, die  _timeElapsed werden mit einer Modulo Berechnung wieder in den normalen Bereich gebracht).
3. Wenn das Maximum an vorgesehenen Iterations-Läufen erreicht ist, stellen wir den Fader auf inaktiv
4. Wenn der Fader inaktiv wird, passen wir die endgültigen Werte auf den minimalen bzw. den maximalen Wert an. Das sollten wir unbedingt tun, da es sonst passieren kann, dass der berechnete Wert am Ende des Faders niemals genau 0 oder 1 errecht (In der Regel vergehen während eines Updates 16 Millisekunden. Bei einer angegebenen Fader-Zeitspanne von 1000 Millisekunden werden allerdings 992 bzw. 1008 Millisekunden erreicht. 1008 Modulo 1000 = 8, also nicht der minimale bzw. maximale Wert!)
5. Wenn der Fader am Ende rückwärts laufen soll, dann nochmal anhand der vergangenen Iterationen die Laufrichtung errechnen.
6. Die bisher vergangenen, Millisekunden (_timeElapsed) in den maximalen Laufzeitbereichs des Faders bringen.
7. Ganz am Ende berechnen wir dann noch den interpolierten Wert. Entweder von von 0 nach 1 oder 1 nach 0
8. Aus dem bereits errechneten Wert in _value wird anhand von MathHelper.SmoothStep der kurvige Wert berechnet!

Fast geschafft! Die beiden errechneten Werte können jetzt noch von außen abgerufen werden und fertig! Außerdem sollten wir noch die Möglichkeit schaffen, von außen abzufragen ob der Fader momentan Aktiv ist, in welcher Wiederholung er sich befindet und in welchem Zeitbereich. Das Aktiv sollte nicht nur abgefragt sondern natürlich auch von außen gesetzt werden können. Also los:

public float Value {
    get { return _value; }
}

public float ValueSmooth {
    get { return _valueSmooth; }
}

public bool Active {
    get { return _active; }
    set { _active = value; }
}

public int Time {
    get { return _time; }
}

public int Iterations {
    get { return _iterations; }
}

Ich gebe zu, wir könnten auch die lokalen Membervariablen durch die Kurzschreibweise von Properties ersetzen, damit die Klasse noch weniger Code beinhaltet. Außerdem sehe ich keinen Grund, warum man von außen nicht alles zumindest abfragen können sollte. Ich gehe trotzdem den Umweg und verwende nicht die Kurzschreibweise für Properties, damit ich in der Update-Routine die Member-Variablen verwenden kann und nicht jedesmal auf die Get-Properties zugreifen muss.

Noch eine Sache bauen wir an unsere Klasse. Ich nenne die beiden Routinen GetValue und GetValueSmooth. Vielleicht ein bisschen unsauber, weil es bereits Get Properties mit dem gleichen Namen gibt. Das hier werden allerdings Funktionen mit 2 Übergabe Parametern. Einmal eine maximale Anzahl an Elementen und einmal die Nummer des aktuellen Elements. Das ist jetzt schwer zu erklären, aber stellt euch vor, ihr habt 100 Objekte, die ihr mit nur einem Fader einfach auf den Bildschirm einblenden wollt. Die hundert Objekte würden alle synchron eingeblendet werden. Schon mal nicht verkehrt. Aber man stelle sich vor, das die Objekte alle mit einer leichten Verzögerung von einander eingeblendet werden. Das sieht noch viel viel besser aus. Dafür müssten wir uns allerdings 100 Fader deklarieren und alle zu einem unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkt starten lassen. Das geht auch mit einem Fader und wurde bereits in vielen früheren XNA-Beispielen ähnlich bewerkstelligt (Glaub ich jedenfalls. Ich bin jedenfalls nicht von alleine auf so eine Idee gekommen). Hier die beiden Funktionen:

public float GetValue(int elementNr, int maxElements)  {
    return MathHelper.Clamp((_value - (1 - 0.5f) * (float)elementNr / ((float)maxElements - 1)) / 0.5f, 0, 1);
}

public float GetValueSmooth(int elementNr, int maxElements) {
    return MathHelper.SmoothStep(0, 1, GetValue(elementNr, maxElements));
}

Eine für die lineare Sache die andere für den smootheren Verlauf. Man Rufe also später Beispielsweise in einer Schleife die 100 Objekte auf, und verwende die oben genannte Routine für den interpolierten Wert, und alle hundert Objekte werden mit einer leichten Verzögerung eingeblendet! So zum Beispiel (jaja, da fehlt nen bissle was, aber das Prinzip ist hoffentlich klar):

for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
    float val = _fader.GetValueSmooth(i, 100);
    _spriteBatch.Draw(_tex, ..., ..., new Color(Color.White, val), rotation * val)
}

So, jetzt kommt nochmal die komplette Klasse als Download. Entweder als einzelne cs Klasse oder als komplettes VS 2012 Projekt.

Komplette Projekt als Zip (Nicht kompiliert)
Klasse ‘Fader.cs’ als Datei

Viel Spaß bei der kreativen Verwendung.

Zurück zu Tuorial 1: Helper Class – Framerate

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